Persian rugs are products of Iran which was known as Persia until 1935. The rugs are handmade in factories employing upwards of fifteen weavers, and by individuals, families and small group of cottage industry.
The rugs produced in factories tend to be standardized in respect to materials, dyes, knotting, and patterns. The weavers are employed to produce specific products and follow directions supplied by their employers. As a result there are few variations in factory made rugs. There are also limited number of special order rugs produced for individuals and export firms. Qom and Nain are two of the most prominent sources of factory rugs, and produce some of the finest in Iran today.
Nomadic weavers and village craftsmen produce approximately 70 percent of the rugs in Iran. The majority of these rugs are exported, and currently the western countries provide the large market for them. The leasing countries of purchase are the United States, Germany, England and Switzerland.
Identifying Persian rugs can be difficult. There are many variations in design, technique of weave, wool, dyes and sizes. The designs are diverse, but if a general type were too named, the floral patterns are the most typical of Persian rugs. The techniques of weave are also diverse. The two basic know of forms are used, Persian and Turkish, as well as the jufi knot in poor quality pieces. The side and end finishes incorporate both overcast and selvaged sides and ends fringed and selvaged. The wool grades range from soft, shiny wool of the kirman rigs to the coarser, somewhat dull wool seen in hamadan rugs. Dyes currently used are almost all synthetic. There are, however, some nomadic Persian rugs still dyed with natural substances, but these are the exception. Regarding rug sizes, the Persian rugs are made in all ranges, though not all types are produced in large, room-sized carpets.
Types of Persian rugs